The Future Perfect podcast from Vox did an episode proclaiming that AI Risk used to be a fringe concern but is now mainstream. That is why OpenAI did not open up GPT-2 to the general public.1Or to academic peer review for that matter. This was good. Everything thanks to Jaan Tallinn and Eliezer Yudkowsky. I cannot let this go uncontested.
Today: why are the people who made our writing bot so worried about what it could do? The short answer is they think that artificial intelligence models like this one can have major unintended consequences. And that’s an idea that’s moved from the fringe to the mainstream with the help of philanthropy.[0:02:21-0:02:43]
This here is the central claim. The money of Tallinn is responsible for people thinking critically about artificial intelligence. Along the way we hear that Tallinn acquired his AI worries from Yudkowsky. Hence, Yudkowsky did something good.
AI might have unintended consequences, like taking our jobs or messing with our privacy. Or worse. There are serious researchers who think the AI could lead to people dying: lots of people. Today, this is a pretty mainstream idea. It gets a lot of mentions it any round-up by AI expert of their thinking on AI and so it’s easy to forget that a decade ago this was a pretty fringe position. If you hear this kind of thing and your reaction is like “Come on, Killer Robots? Really that sounds like science fiction”, don’t worry, you are part of a long tradition of dismissing the real world dangers of AI. The founders of the field wrote papers in which they said as an aside. “Yes. This will probably like transform human civilization and maybe kill us.” But in the last decade or so, something has started to change. AI Risk stopped being a footnote in papers because a small group of people in a small group of donors started to believe that the risks were real. Some people started saying wait if this is true, it should be our highest priority and we should be working on it. And those were mostly fringe people in the beginning. A significant driver of the focus on AI was Eliezer Yudkowsky.[0:04:17-0:05:50]
So the driving force behind all worries about AI is said to be Yudkowsky. Because of his valiant essay-writing, Tallin got convinced and put his money towards funding MIRI and OpenAI. Because of course his real fears center around Mickey Mouse and Magic Broomstick, not on algorithms being biased against minorities or facial recognition software being used to put the Uyghur peoples in China in concentration camps. Because rational white men only focus on important problems.
Yes, so here are a couple examples every year the Pentagon discovers some bugs in their system that make them vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks. Usually they discover those before any outsiders do and they’re there for able to handle them. But if an AI system were sufficiently sophisticated, it could maybe identify the bugs that the Pentagon wouldn’t discover for years to come and therefore be able to do things like make it look to the US government like we’re being attacked by a foreign nuclear power.[0:13:03-0:13:34]
This doesn’t have anything to do with my point, I just think its cute how people from America, the country whose army of cryptographers and hackers (all human) developed and lost the weapons responsible for some of the most devastating cyberattacks in history, worry that other countries might be able to do the same things if only they obtain the magical object that is speculated to exist in the future.
[GPT-2] is a very good example of how philantropic donations from people like Jaan Tallinn have reshaped our approach to AI. The organization that made GPT-2 to is called OpenAI. OpenAI got funding from Jaan Tallinn among many others and their mission is not just to create Artificial Intelligence. But also to make sure that the Artificial Intelligence it creates doesn’t make things worse for Humanity. They’re thinking about, as we make progress in AI, as we develop these systems with new capabilities, as we’re able to do all these new things, what’s a responsible process for letting our inventions into the world? What does being safe and responsible here look like and that’s just not something anybody thought about very much, you know, they haven’t really asked what is the safe and responsible approach to this. And when OpenAI started thinking about being responsible, they realized “Oh man, that means we should hold off on releasing GPT-2”.[0:17:53-0:19:05]
This is boot licking journalism, completely going along with the narrative that OpenAI’s PR department is spinning, just like Vox’s original coverage of that puff news and all of the Effective Altruism community’s reaction. There is something profoundly absurd about taking a corporate lab’s press release at face value and believing that those people live in a vacuum. A vacuum where nobody had previously made unsupervised language models, as well as one where nobody had previously thought about what responsible release of ML models entails. OpenAI is fundamentally in the business of hype, to stroke their funders’ egos, and providing compute-heavy incremental progress in ML is just the means to this end.
It’s kind of reassuring but this organization is a voice at the table saying hey, let’s take this just a little slower. And the contributions from donors like Jaan Tallinn, they have to put that cautionary voice at the table and they put them there early. You know, I think it mattered. I think that the conversation we’re having now is probably more sophisticated, more careful, a little more aware of some of the risks than it would been if there hadn’t been these groups starting 10-15 years ago to start this conversation. I think I has one of those cases where something was always going to be funded only from the fringe and where it really didn’t matter that it got that funding from the fringe.[0:20:18-0:20:53]
The writing makes a clear statement here: the people on the fringe (Yudkowsky et al.) are a significant part of the reason why people are thinking about this. I can hardly imagine how a journalist could say this after having done any research on the topic outside of their own cult-bubble, so I think they didn’t do this.
People in EA, people in ML and the staff at Vox seem almost willfully ignorant of all previous academic debate on dual use technology, none of which derives from MIRI’s fairy tales of evil genies. I blame this phenomenon on contempt of rationalists for the social sciences. If Yudkowsky contributed anything here, it might mainly be in making socio-political worries about technology seem marginally more exciting to his tech bro audience. But the counterfactual is unclear to me.